The presentation of symptoms depends upon the location, size, and shape of the stone. Many times they are symptom free. They are called silent stones. Common symptoms are as follows:
1.Sudden, severe pain- starting in the flanks and moving towards groins. Typically, described as ureteric colic and loin to groin pain
2.Nausea and Vomiting.
3. Blood in Urine.
4. Increased Urinary frequency.
5. Burning sensation on passing Urine.
6. Infection in Urine.
1. People who tend to form stones have certain factors in common.
2. Those who stay in the hot environmental condition, such as tropical area.
3. Positive family history of the stone disease in first blood relation.
4. Decreases fluid intake, which reduces urine output, and forms supersaturated urine.
Medical science have advanced considerably particularly in the last decade. These advances have greatly improved our understanding of course of the stone disease and the management of this ailment has undergone revolutionary changes. This knowledge has further been helpful in the prevention and treatment of stone disease.
Various factors play a role in the formation of kidney stone in a susceptible individual. These factors are diet, water intake, urinary output, climate, occupation, and heredity, radical and family background.
1. Diet- Ingestion of excessive amount of calcium, oxalates, purines (uric acid), phosphates and other elements often results in excessive excretion of these components in the urine. The stone formation can be precipitated by high intake of calcium in the form of milk, ice creams, cheese, chocolates, cocoa, calcium containing drugs or vitamin D.
2. Water Intake and Urinary Output- It has been well established that increased water intake and increased urinary output decrease the incidence of urinary stone in patients predisposed to the disease.
3. Climate- High environmental temperature increases sweating, which may result in increased concentration of urine. This hyper concentration may contribute to stone formation.
4. Occupation- Stone disease is more likely to be found in individuals with sedentary occupation like professionals and managerial class rather than unskilled and partly skilled labourers.
5. Genetic Disorders- Like Gout, Cystinuria, primary Oxaluria, metabolic disorders like bowl, endocrine and kidney problems that increase blood and urine calcium and oxalates can promote the tendency for stone formation. Other rarer conditions like rickets, hyperparathyroidism and demineralization of bone may lead to stone formation.
6. Obstruction and Infection- Due to stricture or enlarged prostate may cause stagnation of urine leading to stone formation. Chronic infection in the kidney may also allow stone formation around the debris in the urine.
In stone belts, where the disease is endemic, it is the hot dry climate and the high content of calcium in the hard water and in the food grown in the soil that leads to stone formation. In areas where this disease is not endemic, in most cases no cause can be detected and it may be the tendency of the kidneys in the individual to form urine of high calcium or urate content. In some it may be due to a period of negligence in intake of adequate fluids worsened by excessive sweating.
Stones form due to many reasons
Common causes of the stone formation are:
Supersaturation of urine by decreases intakes of water and or hot environmental condition where there is loss of body fluid in atmosphere by perspiration, and in breathing.
Urine infection where crystals deposit themselves on and around the infection causing organism, and the stone grows over the period in the supersaturated urine.
Diet rich in oxalates, Uric acid, can increase the incidence of stone formation.
Functional or structural obstruction of the urinary system can precipitate the stone formation. Like Pelviureteric junction obstruction, Ectopic kidney, Horseshoe kidney.
Knowing the fact that you are harbouring the stone you should not ignore that. You should go for check up for the stone size every 6 months and should notice for increase in the size of the stone. Increase in size is the indication that stones need some intervention.
There is high chance of the repeated urinary tract infection because of the stone. Above all symptomatic obstructing stone can lead to kidney failure.
A good first step for prevention is to drink more liquids – water is the best. If you tend to form stones, you should try to drink enough liquids throughout the day to produce at least two litres of urine in every 24 hours period. People who form calcium stones used to be told to avoid dairy products and other foods with high calcium content. However, recent studies have shown that foods high in calcium, including dairy foods, help prevent calcium stones. Taking calcium in pill form, however, may increase the risk of developing stones. Women taking vitamin D and calcium pills in the postmenopausal period to prevent osteoporosis, especially with family history of stones, need to be careful.